To improve the cooking qualities of brown rice, enzymatic and freezing treatments were used in combination to treat brown rice, and the effects of the treatment conditions on the cooking quality indicators of brown rice were determined. The results showed that the soaking temperature, freezing temperature, freezing duration, cellulase concentration, and the pectinase concentration had significant effects on the cooking qualities of brown rice. The optimal treatment conditions for the method were as follows: a cellulase concentration of 0.4 %, a pectinase concentration of 0.2 %, a soaking temperature of 35 °C, and a freezing duration of 180 min. Under such conditions, the cooking qualities of the treated brown rice exhibited a water uptake ratio of 540.21 %, a volume expansion ratio of 638.56 %, a dry matter in rice water of 30.15 mg/g, and an iodine blue value in rice water of 0.28. The treatment method developed in this study integrates the advantages of enzymatic treatment with simple operation of the freezing treatment, and is very effective in improving the cooking qualities of brown rice..
Background: Although postmenopausal obesity is an important public national health problem in Saudi Arabia, to date no study has evaluated the effects of weight reduction on biochemical & clinical parameters and quality of Life for obese Saudi postmenopausal women. Objective: The aim of this study was examine the effects of aerobic versus resisted exercise training effects upon systemic inflammation biomarkers and quality of life for obese postmenopausal Saudi women. Material and Methods: One hundred Saudi postmenopausal obese women participated in this study, their age ranged from 50-58 years and their body mass index (BMI) ranged from 30-35 kg/m2. All participants were divided into two equal groups: The first group received aerobic exercise training on treadmill where, the second group received resisted exercise training. Health-related quality of life (SF-36 HRQL), tumor necrosis factor– alpha(TNF-α), Interleukin-2(IL-2), Interleukin-4 (IL-4), Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured before and after 3 months at the end of the study. Results: The mean values of SF-36 HRQL subscale scores were significantly increased, while the mean value of TNF-α, Il-2, IL-4, IL-6,CRP and BMI were significantly decreased in both groups after treatments. There were significant differences between mean levels of the investigated parameters in group (A) and group (B) after treatment with more changes in patients received aerobic exercise training. Conclusion: The current study provides evidence that aerobic exercise is more appropriate than resisted exercise training in modulating inflammatory cytokines and quality of life among obese postmenopausal women.
Six local wild genotypes of acidic cactus pear from genus Opuntia (xoconostle) from North-Central Mexico were subjected to morphological, physicochemical and nutraceutical evaluation. The highest dimensions were found in genotype ‘Blanco II’ (6.26 cm polar length and 4.37 cm equatorial length); the highest average weight per fruit belonged to ‘Cuaresmeño II’ (91.1 g); the highest seed number was found in ‘Cuaresmeño I’ (192 seeds/fruit) and the highest weight per seed was found in genotype ‘Púrpura’ (3.43 g/100 seeds). Soluble protein content (mg/g) of ‘Blanco I’ had 1.92 (mesocarp) and ‘Rosa’ 2.18 (epicarp and mesocarp). ‘Blanco I’ and ‘Púrpura’ (Red-purplish) had the highest values of ash content (1.05 % and 0.90 %, respectively). Pigment quantification showed that ‘Púrpura’ contained 35.13 and ‘Blanco III’ had 20.85 (mg/100 g of betaxanthin). Antioxidant capacity showed the highest values for ‘Duraznillo’ epicarp and ‘Blanco III’ endocarp with 10.71 and 9.72 (μmol Trolox eq./g), respectively. Soluble phenols content showed ‘Blanco II’ epicarp and ‘Púrpura’ mesocarp having 3.09 and 1.68 mg eq. gallic acid/g, respectively. Six xoconostle processed commercial products were also tested and no soluble protein was found and low antioxidant capacity. Finally, the phenolic content of commercial products was similar to those found in fruits.
The aggravating threat for today’s agriculture is provision of food security to ever-escalating eating mouths utilizing scarce resources. Water scarcity is restraining humans to produce more from drops of water in place of gallons. Root is present at soil-plant interface and is main water extractor for plant. Its growth pattern varies as soil moisture conditions fluctuates. Present pot study consisting of two factors i.e. organic substrates (Farm manure, Poultry Manure and Molasses) and different water stress levels (50, 75, 100 and 125% of AWCs) using maize as test crop to assess their impact on different growth parameters (especially root growth). The experiment was conducted using CRD under factorial arrangement. Root length (44.55 cm), root fresh & dry biomass (71.10 g and 24.30 g), root diameter (1.73 mm), root volume (0.24 cm3) and root length density (7.4 x 10-3 cm cm-3) were observed in farm manure treated pots at 75% AWC that was statistically indistinguishable from all other treatments at same water level and 100% water availability but eloquently greater than plants of all treatments at 50% and 125% available water contents. Shoot length, dry and fresh weights were observed greater in plants having 100% available moistures, that were at par with 75% water treated plants. Comparing treatments for all of the parameters in multivariate cluster analysis it was concluded that 75% available water contents produce almost similar to 100% along with the benefit of water security.